For my final rotation in the clinical laboratory, I was placed in the chemistry lab. This branch of the lab deals with a large majority of the tests routinely ordered in a hospital, such as glucose, electrolytes, etc. Continue reading
The clinical hematology laboratory contains two different types of testing: hematological and coagulation testing. On the hematological side of testing, the main test performed is the complete blood count (CBC), which directly measures the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin, as well as indirectly measuring other values by calculations (such as the mean corpuscular hemoglobin). These tests are performed using a well-mixed whole blood sample that has been collected in a tube containing ethylene diamine triacetic acid, also known as EDTA. Before hematological results are sent out to the healthcare team, they are reviewed by the medical laboratory technologist (MLT). Any abnormal results that are seen by the MLT (either increased or decreased beyond reference ranges) are made into slides and further microscopic analyses are performed. Some results may even be “critical” in the sense that they are so abnormal that the patient may be at risk of harm if the result is not reported immediately. While reviewing parameters, certain “checks” are also performed as an internal quality control system for the sample. One of these kinds of systems include delta checks, which are a comparison of a patient’s previous results to those most current. While changes in values can occur due to the physiological state of the patient, these internal checks are also great for identifying if a sample was taken from the wrong patient. In addition, H&H checks are performed between the patient’s hemoglobin and hematocrit. The hematocrit should match the hemoglobin within certain values, and if not, an issue with the specimen quality is present, and this should be addressed before results are reported for that patient.
One of the main reasons why I chose the medical laboratory profession was for the behind-the-scenes work in the medical field. Nevertheless, I am thankful for those individuals on the front line of the medical profession, directly taking care of patients and their illnesses. Even though this may have the initial reason that drew me to the medical laboratory profession, I have found, throughout my years in university, that I have many other qualities belonging to that of a medical laboratory technologist: I am analytical, process-driven, and a critical thinker. Nonetheless, there has been one aspect of my program that had me a bit worried… Continue reading
The Transfusion Medicine laboratory is responsible for the testing and storing of blood products that will eventually be transfused into patients. Many people are familiar with traditional blood transfusions, however, the Transfusion Medicine laboratory carries many other types of blood products that are requested to be transfused into patients, such as platelets, fresh frozen plasma, albumin, etc. Continue reading
For my third rotation in the clinical laboratory, I was in the Transfusion Medicine laboratory. For those who are unfamiliar with this section of the lab, it is responsible for the testing of patients’ blood and blood products before transfusions occur. Continue reading
Throughout my final weeks in the Histology lab, I performed a variety of special stains in order to detect connective tissues, carbohydrates, microorganisms, and pigments in the diagnosis of certain diseases. I also performed immunohistochemistry in the detection of cancer markers. In a routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, many of these components are not visible and therefore special stains are needed in order for them to be seen.
Throughout this week in the Histology lab, I was operating the automated hematoxylin and eosin stainer, while also submitting stained slides to the pathologists to be reviewed.
Hematoxylin and eosin is a stain used in routine Histology slides. The hematoxylin stains nuclei in the tissue blue, whereas eosin stains the cytoplasm and other structures varying shades of pink. Hematoxylin is a natural dye originating from the logwood tree, Haematoxylum campechianum. However, it is not hematoxylin that is truly staining the nuclei, but rather its oxidized state of hematein. Oxidation of hematoxylin to hematein can occur using two different methods. One is a natural oxidation process that uses air or light. This process takes a significant amount of time to oxidize the dye, however, it produces a very stable stain. The other method uses chemical oxidation that requires either sodium iodate or potassium iodate. While this process occurs much quicker than the natural method, these stains may deteriorate and require filtering before use. However, this oxidized state of hematoxylin is still not sufficient to stain tissues. Hematoxylin must also be combined with a ‘mordant’, which gives the dye affinity to the tissue. Typical mordants that are added to hematoxylin are aluminum, iron, lead, tungsten, and molybdenum. Continue reading
For my second week in the Histology lab, I will describe the processes of tissue processing, embedding and microtomy. During this week, I processed, embedded and cut over 100 tissues.
In my previous blog, the gross description of tissues was explained. After grossing, tissues are put into tissue processor machines. Tissue processing consists of different chemicals entering the tissue for preservation. Tissues are then embedded into paraffin wax using the appropriate orientation. After tissues are embedded in wax and cooled, they can be cut using a microtome to create thin ribbons of tissues. These thin ribbons are then put onto slides. Continue reading
For this blog, I will be describing my exciting first week in the Histology lab! For those of you who are not familiar with this department of the lab, it is where tissues are sent in order to identify diseases. The pathologist is responsible for reading tissue slides microscopically to diagnose disease. These slides are made by technologists, and there are several steps involved in the production of the final slide.
First, when tissue is received in the lab, it is accessioned and given a specimen number. It is then sent to be ‘grossed’, which means it is given a macroscopic description. Next, it is cut into small pieces that are put into cassettes. These cassettes contain either a single piece or several pieces of tissue that will be made into a slide. The cassettes are then processed in machines that make them easier to cut while maintaining the microscopic characteristics of tissues. Once they are processed, tissues are then embedded into paraffin blocks, cut into thin slices using a microtome, stained and sent to the pathologist to read.
In this blog, I have combined my final three weeks in Microbiology. These last weeks mostly consisted of myself working on practice exams, as well as my final practical and theory exam. Additionally, I began working on my Clinical Project and started the testing process. However, I will highlight a few items performed over these last few weeks that have not been previously mentioned. Continue reading